When faced with the threat of alien invasion, whether in the form of little green men or acidic bacteria, it is the duty and responsibility of every man and woman to do their bit to keep the Human race alive. Your species depends on you! This set of guidelines has been collated by the British Government to help you survive should you find yourself stranded, without power, and staring into the face of danger. Any polite and sporting alien should provide ample opportunity for you to read the correct section in line with the Intergalactic Fair Invasion Treaty (2012), before attacking you. Good luck.
Ways to Start A Fire Without Matches
Fire is one of the basic necessities of survival, and is used to cook food, purify water and kill disease causing bacteria. There are different methods that can be used to start a fire without matches, including: friction based and lens based fire starting.
Although the older and more frequently used method, friction based fire starting can be difficult at first but does get easier with practise. The two main items necessary to start the fire are the fire board and the spindle, which is the stick that is spun to create the friction resulting in a spark. The success of a friction fire depends mainly on the type of wood used as the fire board and the spindle. The easiest options to work with are: cotton, juniper, cedar, cypress, walnut, willow and aspen. The sticks that are going to be used to start the fire must also be completely dry.
The Hand Drill Method
A means of fire starting which dates back thousands of years, the hand drill method can be successfully completed each time with a little persistence.
Step 1: Create a tinder nest from anything that catches fire easily, such as: dry grass, leaves or bark. Once a spark has been ignited, the tinder nest will be used to create the flame.
Step 2: In the fire board, make a V-shaped notch with a small depression adjacent to it.
Step 3: Place some bark underneath the notch, in an ideal position to catch an ember from the friction between the spindle and the fire board.
Step 4: Place a 2 foot long spindle in the depression and, while maintaining pressure on the board, roll the spindle between the hands while running them quickly up and down the stick. This action should be continued until an ember is formed on the fire board.
Step 5: Once an ember is sparked, it can be dropped unto the bark by tapping the fire board. The bark can then be transferred to the nest of timber, and blown gently to light the fire.
Lens based fire starting methods involve focusing sunlight on one spot until a fire is started. Most lens based methods are easier to use than friction based, but are slightly disadvantageous because they only work during the day.
The Balloon Method
Filling a balloon with water will create a lens used to harness the sun’s fire creating energy.
Step 1: Once the balloon has been filled it should be tied off, in a spherical shape, at one end. Ensure that it is not inflated too much, or the sunlight will be distorted.
Step 2: Squeeze the balloon into a shape that creates a sharp circle of light.
Step 3: To create a spark, hold the balloon an inch or two from the tinder and focus the sun continuously on the same point.